PC Gaming in 2018

New years eve is just around the corner, so why not summarise the gaming that happened in 2018 :)!

In total I acquired about 50 games, of which I’ve played 15. Once again Humble bundle is responsible for the sheer numbers, with F2P-games (~10) coming in second. Most games have been launched at least, though I’m not counting them as “played”. A prime example of that is Quake 4. I thought I’d play it, but really, there are better games nowadays. Feels good to have it on Steam, though.

Continue reading “PC Gaming in 2018”

Setting up Web Application Pentesting Tools

This post will walk you through how to set up the basics needed to do web app pentesting. More specificly, we’ll be setting up a web browser for pointing and clicking, an attack proxy for hackety hacking – all while covering the configuration needed. Continue reading “Setting up Web Application Pentesting Tools”

F-Secure Radar Login Page Unvalidated Redirect Vulnerability



The application will upon successfully logging in redirect the user to a user-controlled destination. A victim user may not recognise that a redirection takes place as they expect to be sent to a new page.

Vendor Description

F-Secure Radar is a turnkey vulnerability scanning and management platform. It allows you to identify and manage both internal and external threats, report risks, and be compliant with current and future regulations (such as PCI and GDPR compliance). It gives you visibility into shadow IT – to map your full attack surface and respond to critical vulnerabilities associated with cyber threats.
Source: https://www.f-secure.com/en/web/business_global/radar


F-Secure has remediated this issue; no action required for cloud users or on-premise users receiving updates.

Technical Details

Navigating to the Radar application at https://portal.radar.f-secure.com/ will result in the user being sent to https://portal.radar.f-secure.com/login?ReturnUrl=~2Fdashboard.

Upon successful authentication, the value of the ReturnURL query parameter will be used to determine the redirect destination. It is possible to set this to any arbitrary domain as the value is neither validated nor forced to be a relative path.

The following URL would redirect the user to example.com after logging in:

This could be used to send the user to a phishing site, prompting them to re-authenticate (e.g. “Wrong password or username, please try again”).

Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline

2018-02-05 – Vulnerability discovered
2018-02-05 – Vendor contact & response
2018-02-09 – Vendor confirms fix
2018-02-15 – Public disclosure

F-Secure Radar Persistent Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerability



The application can suggest metadata tags for assets, and in doing so it can execute JavaScript entered previously by a malicious user.

Vendor Description

F-Secure Radar is a turnkey vulnerability scanning and management platform. It allows you to identify and manage both internal and external threats, report risks, and be compliant with current and future regulations (such as PCI and GDPR compliance). It gives you visibility into shadow IT – to map your full attack surface and respond to critical vulnerabilities associated with cyber threats.
Source: https://www.f-secure.com/en/web/business_global/radar


F-Secure has remediated this issue; no action required for cloud users or on-premise users receiving updates.

Technical Details

The frontend application issues a PUT request to the server when metadata tags are updated:

PUT /api/latest/vulnerabilityscans/tags/batch HTTP/1.1
Host: portal.radar.f-secure.com

The Tags parameter in the JSON request body can be modified to contain arbitrary JavaScript, e.g.:

[…], “Tags”:[“<img src=a onerror=\”alert(1)\”>”], […]

This script will execute whenever the frontend attempts to suggest tags, e.g. when a user opts to add tags to a new asset.

Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline

2018-01-24 – Vulnerability discovered
2018-01-24 – Vendor contact & response
2018-02-01 – Vendor confirms fix
2018-02-15 – Public disclosure

OWASP Top 10 2013 – A3 – Cross-Site Scripting

> Is your address really street”/><script>doStuff();</script>?

Cross-Site Scripting attacks are tremendously prevalent, which I find surprising because it is an easy problem to detect and to remediate. There are even a lot of decent mitigation alternatives out there as well.

What is Cross-Site Scripting (or XSS, if you prefer)?

Cross-Site Scripting occurs whenever someone else is able to run JavaScript within your site. This could, of course, happen if someone can upload HTML files (containing scripts), but the dominating attack vector is regular input fields.

For example, a web application might have a search feature:


The resulting page might then contain:

<h1>Search results for: test</h1>

From this basic example we can assert that the user is in control of two things regarding the content:
1. What search results are present on the search page
2. A section of the body is directly correlated to the search term (parameter search)

So searching for “asdkhafohgsoudghs” would possibly yield zero results. Searching for “e” might match every single entry. That makes sense, but is not that useful to us at the very moment.

The fact that whatever we supply as the search parameter is directly reflected is very interesting. The intended behaviour is to reflect the search query, but what if we enter HTML?

search.php?search=test<img src=test/>

It would probably look something like:

So we managed to inject a broken image by entering the corresponding HTML. Nice. Now, what about that Cross-Site Scripting?

search.php?search=test<img src=test onerror=”alert(‘:)’)”/>

At this point, we have the ability to inject and run JavaScript.

So why is this a bad thing?

> … After all, it’s just alert boxes!

Everyone likes to bash JavaScript for being horrible. While some (most?) criticism is legitimate, keep in mind that it’s possible to do pretty much anything once you can run it.

There are some restrictions in place, one of them being that some stuff can only be performed within the current domain. That’s why we need to inject the scripts on the victim site. Otherwise it would be REALLY easy wreak havoc on the internet.

Because when you have access to inject JavaScript, you can:
1. Steal the cookies, nom nom
2. Hijack the current session (either cookies or other tokens)
3. Modify the cookies, if that is useful
4. Modify or completely replace the current page
5. Steal credentials, keystrokes, and so on
6. Redirect the users

What flavour do you want?

XSS comes in different varieties, as is to be expected.

Reflected Cross-Site Scripting
So the example we had above was a reflected cross-site scripting. You input something, the site reflects it, and the attack triggers. If you do this attack, then you XSS yourself. Not that effective.

Usually, you would want to forge some URL that you can send to a victim, preferably disguise it as well. In some cases (e.g. POST-request) you need to leverage a CSRF-attack in order to get the script in there.

Persistent Cross-Site Scripting
While there is no difference for what you can do, persistence makes further attacks easier. Depending on where the script is presented, it might also make exploitation easier.

For a Persistent Cross-Site Scripting to occur, a script that is injected once must be stored and then consistently be presented by the web application. For example, a user might change their display name to “Derp<script>…</script>”

Semi-Persistent Cross-Site Scripting
Reflected and Persistent pretty much had a baby. Important to note here is the scope of the attack, for how long is the attack persistent? X page loads? X minutes? Per session? Day? Until something else happens?

DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting
I’ll leave this for another day, but you could of course go ahead and read OWASPs stuff!

Essentially, code can be supplied to and run within the front-end application, with no server interaction.

OWASP Top 10 2013 – A4 – Insecure Direct Object References

> Hello, I’m user number fiftysev…. Fiftyeight.

Insecure Direct Object References are types of authorization issues, where a user can access information (objects) which they are not supposed to.

For example, imagine a bank application where you can view your personal info via:


Now, what does “57” refer to? Probably some kind of reference to your user account. A… Direct… Reference… To your user account.

So the application probably runs a database query like:

SELECT * from profiles where userid = ?

So what happens if you swap 57 to something else? 58? Or perhaps 56 because, you reason, it is probably guaranteed to exist a user with the previous ID if it’s an incrementing counter.

If the application allows you to view profiles of other users (perhaps including their bank details and balances), the application has an issue with A4, as it exposes a direct reference to an object, and does not properly check if whoever queries it is authorised to get access to the data.

What to look out for

Again, this is a set of authorisation-problems. Exposing references and identifiers is never a good thing to do, but it’s not a vulnerability in itself as long as proper access control is in place.

Now, you could go through the following mental checklist in order to check for A4:

A. Does this page always look the same, for all people and under all circumstances?
If not, chances are the application presents different pages depending on some user input.

B. How are the unique/dynamic pages identified?
Look at the HTTP request. Are you sending some kind of token or identifier to indicate what page you want? Is it tied to the session/login?
Make sure to look at:
– GET-parameters, e.g. “?id=57&section=all”
– POST-parameters (request body)
– Cookies (delete one of them at a time, and see if the page changes)
– Common headers (do you get the mobile site if you pretend to be on iOS?)
– Other headers (custom headers?)

C. What is the scope of this identifier?
Let’s say you find “?id=57”. What is the scope? For user profiles… Probably site-wide. An id represents a user globally throughout the application.

Though what if you see “transactions.php?acc=2”? Perhaps that displays the transactions for account number two. Since there are probably thousands of bank accounts in the system, the scope of this identifier is probably bound to your account.

It’s terribly important to recognise that identifiers have a scope in which they are valid. Something that is not unique can only be successfully used in certain contexts, i.e. I could have 100 accounts, but you may only have 3.

From this, you can start to guess (and draft) how the application handles the identifier for the object. Perhaps something is used to set the context, which can be exploited. Perhaps you can change context somehow.

D. Is it possible to access other objects from this control? Should that be allowed?
Swap one reference for another. What happens in the following cases:
1. Use the reference given by the application. This is the default request and should work.
2. Swap to another reference “owned”/associated with your current user account. Most of the time this works as well. If it doesn’t, then we learn something about in which context/scope we can use it… Perhaps there is something else that needs to match up?
3. Refer to an object owned by another user account (might require you to have another account). This will work a lot of the time, you’d be surprised (or not, since it’s on the OWASP top 10 list…)
4. Refer to an object that does not exist. Most of the time this will yield a generic error, though verbose stack traces are also possible.

Some users should be able to view the data of others, keep that in mind when testing. Users should not be able to read private messages belonging to others, but perhaps administrators should be allowed to do so.


For existing applications, make sure to implement access restrictions for all objects. User A should only be able to fetch resources that user A is allowed to view, and so on. Identify all references within the application, implement the necessary checks, and make sure to test it.

For new applications, consider avoiding these references altogether. Do you need to pass the user ID, if the user is already logged in? Do you need to have global references, or could they be references to the specific objects belonging to the current user only? Would you be able to present dummy references and then re-map them to the internal references later on?

Final thoughts

Make sure to double-check that the user is permitted to access whatever they’re trying to access. If not, it might be possible to access other users data by directly modifying the exposed references.